Prajnya Celebrates 75 Years of India’s Independence || A note from Jyothi #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, Jyothi, who has penned down her thoughts on the India she cherishes and loves.

Jyothi

75 years of her independence, 

50 years on her soil

Nourished, enriched, I am, within and without!

Dirtied on the dusty floor of a hut in shambles,

Until the discovery of the treasure beneath

There, buried deep in her bosom, the profound wisdom, never gone!

The horrors of strife, differences amplified,

Drudgery of toil, a pace, often too fast to hold on to

Amidst the disorder, there, hidden in her folds, absolute peace!

In a hurry to meet the world, nay lead,

Trampling her riches into blackened soil

Somewhere in the air, wisps of her ever-fresh breath, a reminder!

Not merely in the forms, structures or volumes,

Her culture and heritage be truly sought

In the wisdom and compassion nurtured in this soil, there is, all the wealth!

Blessed indeed I am,

To breathe this air, walk this earth,

Realizing the souls she nurtured, guiding me and beyond, now and forever!

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Celebrates 75 Years of India’s Independence || A note from Murugan, Community Organisation for Women #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, Murugan, from the Community Organisation for Women (COW) NGO.

Murugan, Community Organisation for Women (COW) NGO

இந்தியா தேசம் இது…

மதங்களை இணைத்திடும்‌தேசம்  இது…

பல‌மொழிகள் பேசிடும் சேதம் இது…

அனைவரின் மனதில் அன்பு என்ற மொழி பேசிடும் தேசம் இது…

கலாச்சாரம் மிக்க தேசம் இது….

கலைகளை காவியமாக்கிய தேசம் இது….

மனித நேய மக்கள் கொண்ட தேசம் இது….

 கடவுளின் சொந்த தேசம் இது…

தியாகிகளின் தேசம் இத….

திறமையான இளைவர் தேசம் இது…

: குமரி முதல் இமயம் வரை‌ எங்கள் தேசம் இது….

சம உரிமை கொண்ட எங்கள்  ஐனநாயக தேசம் இது….

வெற்றி உடன் பட்டு ஒலி பறக்க 75‌‌ வது சுதந்திரா தேசம் இது எங்களின் இந்திய தேசம் இது…….

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Celebrates 75 Years of India’s Independence || A note from Aditya Shikar Bhattacharya #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, Aditya Shikar Bhattacharya, a second-year med student at Stanley Medical College.

This question did come as a surprise to me. Sometimes, I get so lost in hating things about India that I forget why I cherish this country in the first place. I love the beaches of Chennai, the skyscrapers of Mumbai, and the hills of Darjeeling. I love the wonder I felt the first time I saw the sands of Rajasthan, the joy I felt after a night of partying in Bangalore, and the serenity I felt in a houseboat in Kerala. Anywhere you look, India presents a million opportunities to anyone. It may not be a utopia, and we still have a long way to go, but at least we know the value of letting a woman have the right to decide what happens with their body; basic values that, in today’s world are becoming harder and harder to find. I cherish our culture, our history, a sense that we came from somewhere, something that binds us all together but also lets us be so different from each other. I cherish that this country gave me the chance to grow into the person I am, and build myself up for better or worse to become the person I am today. I love the random feeling of pride I feel when some online page says Ashoka the Great was responsible for the spread of Buddhism, or when Hasan Minhaj makes a joke about desi parents. Even seeing “proud to be an Indian” in the comment section of some random post makes me chuckle. It may be a little cringe to some people but hey, at least it’s better than not having a random post at all. It’s funny, I’m so critical of India and yet, I can’t think of what I hope for in its 75th year of independence. Maybe for a bit more compassion. As a med student, my heart goes to every medico beaten or hurt for circumstances not under their control. I want my India to be more tolerant, to each other and itself. I want my India to my cleaner, younger, and stronger. Phrases like Make India Great Again does not work because we were always and still are great, it’s just a nudge or two in the right direction that will make us as close to utopia as possible

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Celebrates 75 Years of India’s Independence || A note from a Friend of Prajnya, Ammu Joseph #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, Ammu Joseph who is a senior journalist, author, Friend of Prajnya and a part of our Advisory Panel.

Diversity Dreams

Ammu Joseph

Nearly 35 years ago, while at Wolfson College, Cambridge, on a press fellowship, my fellow fellows – from New Zealand and Australia – and I were requested to speak on the topic, “Living in a Multicultural Society.” I really wondered how it would be possible in the limited time available to give the audience some sense of what “multicultural” means in the Indian context. It was such a challenge that the memory of that long-ago talk has remained with me all these years.

I began by saying that while it is fairly well-known that India is home to multiple languages and religions, many other aspects of its multifarious diversity are less well-known. For example, apart from boasting a number of different geographical features (mountains, plains, a plateau, a desert, a long coastline and islands), the country has a population in which almost all the races in the world are represented. 

I went on to highlight the fact that while the whole of the Western world has one form or tradition of classical music, India has two: Carnatic and Hindustani, besides multiple forms of semi-classical, folk and popular music.  While ballet is the classical dance form of the Western world, India now has nine recognised classical dance forms:  Bharatanatyam, Manipuri, Kathak, Odissi, Kathakali, Mohiniattam, Kuchipudi, Sattriya and Chhau, besides numerous forms of semi-classical and folk dances, as well as modern/contemporary dance.  And then of course there is theatre in multiple forms and languages, myriad forms of art – traditional, folk and modern/contemporary, a huge variety of indigenous, hand-woven textiles and handicrafts made from a wide range of materials, and so on. Traditional forms of dress also vary across the country, I said, with even the familiar sari draped differently in different parts of India.

And just in case anyone still thought Indian cuisine was represented by “curry” or even chicken tikka masala, the origins of which have since been hotly contested in India and the UK, I thought it was important to highlight the innumerable cuisines that exist across the country, with various regions and sub-regions, castes/sub-castes, communities, communities within communities and, of course, families having evolved fairly unique culinary traditions over the years. I got the feeling that what really caught the imagination of the audience in this context was the fact that even the preferred cooking oil was often different in different parts of the country.  

This kind of mind-boggling diversity – among its people, customs and traditions, literature and the arts, food habits and clothes, and almost every other aspect of life – is what I cherish most about India. And my dream is that my country will not only retain but actively preserve, protect, cherish and celebrate its precious, uniquely plural character. It is difficult to be optimistic about that wish at this point in time. But I suppose it is precisely at such times that we have to remind ourselves that we need to live in hope:

“Hope is being able to see that there is light despite all of the darkness.” 

(The late Archbishop Desmond Tutu)

“Where there is no hope, it is incumbent on us to invent it.” 

(Attributed to Albert Camus online, unverified)

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Celebrates 75 years of India’s Independence || A Note from Kamatchi, Senior Researcher at Social Watch – TN #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, Kamatchi, a Senior Researcher at Social Watch – Tamil Nadu, who has outlined her dreams for India. Click here to watch a video of the same.

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Celebrates 75 years of India’s Independence || A Note from our Founder, Dr. Swarna Rajagopalan #PrajnyaCelebratesIndia #IndiaAt75

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August 15, 2022 marks 75 years of India’s independence. Celebrating the same, we have with us, our founder and managing trustee, Dr. Swarna Rajagopalan, who has shared her thoughts on the India of her dreams and the India she cherishes. Click here to watch a video of the same.

Dr. Swarna Rajagopalan

I inherited India from a family of freedom-fighters… But who didn’t?

After all, countless Indians, unnamed, unheralded, gave of themselves, participated in the freedom movement.

All my life, being Indian has been a precious element of my identity.

“She was like some ancient palimpsest on which layer upon layer of thought and reverie had been inscribed, and yet no succeeding layer had completely hidden or erased what had been written previously.”

Nehru’s ancient palimpsest is my rich, complex, layered heritage, studded like the walls of the Taj Mahal, where stones of many colours become an artistic wonder.

This India, where we are different and disagree but all still owners and co-creators, squabbling but working together… Tagore’s “Heaven of Freedom.”

My dream for India? Let me recall (and annotate) Tagore’s…

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high because truth brings courage

Where knowledge is free because we are open-minded and unafraid to learn

Where the world has not been broken up into fragments along any human-made lines

By narrow domestic walls that barricade our empathy, compassion or fairness

Where words come out from the depth of truth after learning, reflection and introspection

Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection both in the means and the end

Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way

muddied with sentiment, clouded by credulousness, egged on by performance pressure,

Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit, induced by laziness or apathy or blind faith

Where the mind is led forward by thee, “thee” being our consciousness and conscience, 

Into ever-widening thought and action, thoughtful action, 

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, my Mother, my fellow-Indians, let my country awake.

What gives me hope? The countless Indians I know who wake up every morning, and overcoming the obstacle course of everyday life, go out to work for a better world, creating safe spaces and shelters, supporting those in distress, enabling people to support themselves and their families, seeking justice for the wronged, re-building shattered lives and speaking and writing truth, everyday, quietly, against all odds, working without expectation of reward or fear of the consequences. They never give up on the dream.

75, and counting, but our “Tryst with Destiny” is incomplete.

Let us renew our promise to be better Indians by being better humans, more humane, more accepting of other humans, more compassionate, more courageous, more committed to the values that constitute us.

I am Swarna and I do so now.

We, the Prajnya Team, would also love to have you send us a small text or art project or voice recording or video, telling us what you cherish about India, what your dream for the country is, and what makes you optimistic about India as we inch closer to celebrating 75 years of India’s independence. You can email or share your contribution with us via Google Drive at <programmes.prajnya@gmail.com> or via Whatsapp at +91 97908 10351. We look forward to hearing from you!

Prajnya Gender Talks, July 2022 || Child Marriage: Mapping the Legal Conundrum by Dr. Ruchira Goswami

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9th July, 2022

Rapporteur: Meghna Menon

For the Prajnya Gender Talks on 9th July, 2022, we had with us Dr. Ruchira Goswami, who spoke on the topic ‘Child Marriage: Mapping the Legal Conundrum’. Prof. Ruchira teaches at the National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata where she offers courses in Sociology, Human Rights, Gender and Law, Child Rights and Film and Law. She was the Head of the Centre for Child Rights, NUJS, a multidisciplinary centre set up in partnership with UNICEF with the mandate of research, documentation, and advocacy on child rights issues. Her talk focussed on the journey of the law, as well as the complexities and the nuances between different legislations in the country that talk about child marriage, age of consent and adolescent sexuality in India.

Prof. Ruchira began the session by mapping the history of the law dealing with child marriages in India. She narrated the story of Rukhmabai, who was married off early, in the late 1880s. The marriage was never consummated, as Rukhmabai never went to live with her in-laws. According to her, her husband was not a capable or ideal partner, and in order to continue her education, she lived with her natal family. When Rukhmabai was 20 years of age, her husband filed for Restitution of Conjugal Rights, stating that she should stay with him. She refused to do so, despite the Privy Council ruling against her and ordering for her imprisonment if she does not respond to the claim of the RCR. Rukhmabai stated that she would rather be imprisoned than live with her husband, and the case was settled out of court. During this time, Rukhmabai also wrote under the pseudonym ‘A Hindoo Lady’ in the Times of India on Hindu girls getting married at a young age and the plight of a Hindu widow. She stated that she could not go back to her husband because she was married off at an early age (when she was 10) and her consent was not sought to solemnise the marriage, questioning if her consent did matter as she was only 10 years of age. Prof. Ruchira stated this to be a landmark case study in understanding the right of a woman to consent to marriage, and sexual relations as well as better understand the age of consent debate. The speaker also narrated the case study of Phulmoni Dasi, a young child who was raped to death by her husband on her wedding night, and this, she notes, opened up a whole new debate on the rape of girls within marriages. Additionally, she spoke about sexual violence against Bhanwari Devi in the year 1990, and the fight for justice leading to the formulation of the Prevention of Sexual Harassment of Women at Work (POSH) Act. Another landmark case study that was discussed during the PGT was on Shakuntala Verma, a social worker who worked on the prevention of child marriages in Rajasthan in the early 2000s. “We see that the tentacles holding on to child marriages are really, really strong”, Prof. Ruchira noted.

Prof. Ruchira also spoke at length about the customary law undergoing various amendments to increase the age of marriage, and finally, becoming a statutory law called the “Child Marriage Restraint Act” which recognised that child marriages cannot be completely stopped, and can only be restrained. In 2006, this law was replaced with the “Prohibition of Child Marriages Act”, and the speaker explained that the law not only became stricter (with the changes in terminology and punishments) but also introduced the concept of declaring a marriage “void” and “voidable”. Explaining the same, Dr. Ruchira asked, “How many girls in India will be able to declare their marriages as void, especially without the support of the State and NGOs?”

Moving away from the statutory criminal law on child marriages, Prof. Ruchira Goswami also shed light on other laws dealing with the age of consent in India, like the IPC Section 375 (Rape Law), the age of sexual consent in the IPC, as well as the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act. All three of these legislation had different ages of consent. There were also conflicting perspectives arising here on whether the POCSO Act and the Prohibition of Child Marriages Act must trump other laws as the two are statutory in nature. The Supreme Court verdict in 2013 and in 2017 made amendments to the aforementioned laws and changed the age of sexual consent to 18 years of age.

With this, Prof. Ruchira drew the attention of the audience to the lack of recognition of adolescent sexuality in the laws of the country. The general idea is that people become sexual beings only after reaching the age of 18. This leaves no room for discussing adolescent participation and agency, stated the speaker. Shedding light on the recent discussions surrounding the increase in the age of marriage of girls to 21, she expressed how these decisions do not equip a woman with the agency and autonomy to make decisions concerning her marriage. Furthermore, she stated that this might prevent women from having relationships with men of that choice, particularly in cases concerning intercaste and intercommunity marriages.

The session concluded with Dr. Ruchira mentioning how girls cannot get married off, or choose to marry before the age of 18, and that the law fails to recognise adolescents as sexually active beings. A question was raised about how abortion laws play into this picture, when the girl is below 18 years of age. Prof. Ruchira answered that when an unwed teenager finds herself pregnant and seeks an abortion, she is asked to reveal her age and call for her parents. In the event that she does not want her parents to know, and because she cannot access the health system in a legal way, the teenager is forced to seek unsafe abortions in unregistered clinics. However, the doctors have a duty to inform the police if the girl is below 18 years of age, as it is a POCSO case. But that leads to her autonomous self being obliterated, stated the speaker. Another question was raised about what happens to a girl below the age of 18 if her husband (who is also below 18) is in jail, and the girl does not wish to go back to her parents. Dr. Ruchira noted this to be a common occurrence these days, and as girls below the age of 18 are still seen as children under the eyes of the law, the police will either release the girl to her parents or put her in a government-run shelter for children.

The PGT ended with conversations surrounding how the legislations have patriarchal notions on chastity. So, while the law and the society fail to view children as sexually active beings, there is also the perception of a girl child being a burden. Dr. Ruchira concluded the PGT by stating that, lately, the need to get a girl married also comes with parents wanting to prevent marriages out of wedlock.

Women Workers Union rallies for rights on International Domestic Workers’ Day 2022

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June 16, 2022 | Chennai, Tamil Nadu

(Report compiled by Suhasini Udayakumar, Prajnya intern)

The Penn Thozhilalarkal Sangam (PTS), consisting of more than 50,000 informal workers from Chengalpattu, Chennai, Kanchipuram, and Tiruvalluvar districts, commemorated International Domestic Workers’ Day 2022 on June 16 at Valluvarkottam, Chennai, with a protest aimed at the Government of Tamil Nadu.

PTS’ asks from the state have remained firm and consistent: the creation of a separate law for the rights of domestic workers to ensure job security, minimum wage and social security benefits; ratification of the ILO convention 189; holding of a tripartite convention to discuss the TN labour codes and rules for domestic workers; formation of a Local Complaints Committee (LCC) for domestic workers at the corporation, municipality, ward, and panchayat levels; reduction of the retirement age of all unorganised manual workers to 55 and an increase of the pension amount to INR 3000 per month; a collection of 3% on house tax for welfare purposes; adjustment of white-board bus timings and frequency to benefit domestic workers (7-8.30 AM and 2-5 PM), and representation of women domestic workers on the Minimum Wage Committee, and other labour welfare boards and bodies.

The protest, spearheaded by PTS and Garment and Fashion Workers Union (GAFWU) President Sujada Mody and General Secretary Palani Bharathi, saw the presence of feminist leaders such as V. Geetha and Dr. K. Kalpana, and long-time PTS changemakers such as Dhanalakshmi, Vijayalakshmi, Pushparani, Prema, and Latha.

V. Geetha, one of the country’s most prominent feminist writers and activists emphasised the staggering double burden borne by women (and even more so by domestic workers), the urgent need to meet their demands for fundamental rights, and the power of continued protests.

Dr. K. Kalpana traced the history of women’s work, pointing out women’s invisibilised role in the industrial revolution, and the economic stability that men and the state continue to enjoy purely due to women’s contribution through unpaid and unrelenting domestic and care work. She highlighted the role that domestic worker unions play: they were the first to demand compensation for domestic work, thus kindling the realisation that women must not perform such work for free, be it at home or outside. These unions send out a message to the world that domestic and care work are skilled, essential, and dignified labour. Dr. Kalpana concluded that women must work together to eliminate the stigma associated with such work and raise awareness of the rights to which every woman/domestic worker is entitled.

GAFWU General Secretary Palani Bharathi reprimanded the government’s WIEGO Policy Brief No.23 which set a minimum wage of Rs. 371 per hour for “unskilled” domestic work, stating that all domestic work needs unique and special skills. She also asserted the importance of reducing domestic workers’ retirement age to 55, especially in light of recent pandemic conditions.

PTS President Sujata applauded the protest as a celebration of the 11th anniversary of the Union. She discussed the initiative and unity demonstrated by PTS members, commending them for the respect, recognition and empowerment they have championed for all domestic workers. She stressed the power of continued dialogues with the government and urged members to use benefits wisely, give feedback, and be fully involved in governmental decisions.

Other PTS members such as Dhanalakshmi, Vijayalakshmi, Pushparani, Prema, and Latha motivated their comrades to take pride in their work; to be bold and fearless in voicing their demands for fair pay, bonuses, work hours, leave policies, insurance, perks, benefits etc., and to put up a united front through and through.

This resolute protest and observance of International Domestic Workers’ Day 2022 was a true embodiment of domestic workers’ strength, solidarity, and determination, and a sustained bid for structured work policies that would protect the state’s domestic workers.

Hate Speech during Election Campaigns: A Petition for Action

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March 25, 2021

Chief Election Officer, Tamil Nadu 

Dear Sir,

We, the undersigned, as citizens, professionals and women’s rights advocates in Tamil Nadu are writing to demand that you take action against Mr. Dindigul I. Leoni and candidate Mr. Karthikeya Sivasenapathy for the former’s misogynistic statements in the course of his Assembly election campaign in the course of the latter’s election campaign.

We are appealing to you, Mr. Chief Electoral Officer, in recognition of the fact that political parties will hesitate to withdraw a candidate two weeks ahead of an election.

Candidates who vilify members of any gender, caste or community in the course of an election campaign, including making personal comments on their appearance or lifestyle, are not deserving of the honour of representing any of us. Their tolerance of hate speech by their supporters is an equal offence. This is also true of political parties who tolerate this culture of vilification and hate speech in their self-interest.

While the Model Code of Conduct prohibits caste or communal comments and provocations and it forbids candidates from insulting each other, it carries no such provision with respect to slurs and insults against women and gender minorities. We ask that you set a precedent by penalising this candidate immediately.

It is time that misogynistic, homophobic and transphobic speech were made disqualifications for the honour of serving in our legislatures, along with histories of sexual harassment and violence. Please take action that initiates that change in our election laws.

As the Prajnya Gender Equality Election Checklist states, “Democracy without gender equality is incomplete and imperfect.” As the guardians of India’s electoral democracy, it is up to the Election Commission to introduce and promote a more gender-sensitive and inclusive election culture, by:

1.       Banning misogynistic, homophobic and transphobic speech; and

2.      Barring candidates charge-sheeted or convicted of sexual and gender-based violence and harassment.

This outrageous campaign speech by Mr. Dindigul I. Leoni offers you an opportunity to act in the interest of 3.18 crores women voters in Tamil Nadu—the majority of voters, as you know, in this state. You must act, Mr. Chief Election Officer, because without your action, you know that the political parties that field such obnoxious candidates will not.

We look to you in the hope that you will stand up for the Constitution that sees all of us as equal citizens, equally entitled to dignity. We ask you to penalise the campaigner, the candidate and warn political parties to stop the use of offensive language.

Yours truly,

Swarna Rajagopalan 

Sujata Mody

ACR Sudaroli

Copied to:

  • Chief Election Commissioner, India
  • The Chief Minister, Tamil Nadu
  • Chairperson,Tamil Nadu State Commission for Women 
  • Secretary, Law Ministry, Tamil Nadu
  • Chief Justice, Madras High Court
  • President, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

This letter is also online here and it will be available for others to view and endorse.

#Beijing25 ||ROADMAP: women and peace

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Shohini Banerjee’s depiction of the inclusion of women in peace processes was the winner of Roadmap, an infographic contest to celebrate 25 years of the Beijing Platform for Action.

References

  1. Council on Foreign Relations. Women’s Roles in Peace Processes: Explore the Data. Retrieved August 15, 2020, from https://www.cfr.org/womens-participation-in-peace-processes/explore-the-data
  2. Gender Peacekeeping. Retrieved August 20, 2020, from
    https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/gender
  3. Hedström, J., & Senarathna, T. (Eds.). (2015). Women in Conflict and Peace (Rep.). International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. from https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/women-in-conflict-and-peace.pdf
  4. Khullar, A. (2020, January 16). A Lukewarm Commitment: India and Gender Equality in Security Affairs. Retrieved August 26, 2020, from https://southasianvoices.org/a-lukewarm-commitment-indian-perspectives-on-unscr-1325/
  5. Landmark resolution on Women, Peace and Security (Security Council resolution 1325). (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2020, from https://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/wps/
  6. O’Reilly, M. (2015). Why Women? Inclusive Security and Peaceful Societies (Rep.). Inclusive Security. from https://www.inclusivesecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Why-Women-Brief-2020.pdf
  7. Press Trust India. (2019, October 22). Urgent need to institutionalise involvement of women in conflict prevention: India. Retrieved August 15, 2020, from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/urgent-need-to-institutionalise-involvement-of-women-in-conflict-prevention-india/articleshow/71699614.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest
  8. Samad, K. (2011). Gender, Conflict and Peace-building: On the Margins of Development
    (Rep.). Paris: UNESCO. doi: BFC/PCPD/2011/PI/1/REV.2

Shohini Banerjee is a Gender and Development Consultant.