How you spend your time: the role of caste and gender


Rukmini S explores the key findings from the first ‘Time Use’ Survey conducted by the government. The survey, a first by the government in 20 years, shows the strong role of gender in determining how people spend their time. According to the survey, just 6% of men participate in cooking in any manner, and just 8% do any house cleaning.

Women spend 84% of their working hours on unpaid activities, while men spend 80% of their working hours on paid work.

Upper caste men and women have the most time for self-care and maintenance activities, including sleep, while Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe men and women have the least time among social groups.
Key highlights of the survey:

  • The poorest Indians spend the least time on paid work, and the richest Indians have the least time for sleep.
  • Upper castes spend the most time on religious practice, have the most time to watch television and use other media, and have the most leisure time
  • In Telangana and Tamil Nadu, women spend over 30% of their working hours on paid work, while in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh fewer than 10% of women’s working hours result in any pay.
  • Men aged 15-59 in Haryana do the least housework – just 15 minutes in a day.

Read the full article here: Your caste and class determines how you spend time

#Aftermath || Emergencies: A Time to Fix Systemic Problems


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Emergencies: A Time to Fix Systemic Problems

By Sheelu Francis

Sheelu Francis is the founder of Tamil Nadu Women’s Collective. She has 25 years of experience mobilizing women farmers in India. Her experience working with women farmers in India exemplifies the link between climate change and women’s rights. She is also an international spokesperson and strongly speaks before the world about international trade, debt and activities of transnational corporations on local development, food security and sovereignty.


The effect of COVID-19 on India has been vastly contrasting. While the health emergency is concentrated in the metropolitan cities, the livelihood emergency is acute in rural areas.

Tamil Nadu Women’s Collective (TNWC) initiated a study of 620 people in 62 villages spread over 18 districts in Tamil Nadu, to understand the effect of COVID-19 on their lives.

The findings underline several other studies coming out of other areas: a high incidence of domestic violence (81%), increased male involvement in household chores (71%), a dominant feeling of government apathy (only 8% felt the government has given enough support), and acute hunger (25% of families), to name a few.

Not everything is broken, though. All villagers are happy about the closure of the state-owned liquor shops (TASMAC), death rates have come down, and the government was able to provide essential medicines to 75% of respondents.

A full list of the findings and recommendations are given below.

The findings point to systemic problems that need to be addressed by lawmakers. The lockdown has magnified existing problems, as well as solutions. Taking cognizance of our survey and experience on the ground, and TNWC has prepared a list of recommendations that will help us emerge a better society after the COVID-19 emergency.

Recommendations are structured around the following points:

  1. Leverage the public distribution system to deliver better quality, quantity of free produce and enhanced cash benefits to card holders.
  2. Enhance financial support by announcing moratoriums for loans and public service utilities such as electricity
  3. Ensure well-being of unskilled labourers through existing infrastructure such as MNREGA
  4. Completely ban alcohol and tobacco products
  5. Especially ensure that health and economic needs of women, senior citizens, and pregnant/lactating mothers are taken care of without interruption

When we emerge on the other side of this pandemic, we must reflect deeply on the lessons learned, and look for ways to fix systemic problems that have embedded themselves in our society.

Women’s Collective Survey Report Summary

April, 2020

Women’s Collective conducted a telephonic survey of 620 people in 62 villages spread over 18 districts of Tamil Nadu: Kanyakumari, Thirunelveli, Thenkasi, Tutucorin, Madurai, Theni, Dindugal, Nilgris, Salem, Thiruvannamalai, Ranipettai, Thirupattur, Thiruvarur, Dharmapuri, Chengalpet, Kanchipuram, Thiruvallore  and Chennai in Tamil Nadu on 23rd of April, 2020.

Summary list of findings:

  1. Seven percent of the respondents were not aware of Coronavirus
  2. 16% of the villages have positive cases of Coronavirus
  3. Only 8% feel that the government has given enough support.
  4. 31% of the villages have migrant workers.
  5. No respondent got 100 days’ work under MNREGA till April 23, as promised by government.
  6. All the villagers are happy about closure of TASMAC, the government-run liquor shops.
  7. 6.5% of the villages have illicit liquor sales.
  8. Only 75% of the people follow the lockdown instructions given by the government.
  9. In 71% of the families, men help in household work
  10. 81% of the families reported some form of domestic violence during lockdown.
  11. 25% of the families face acute hunger.
  12. In 98% of the villages, the death rate has drastically reduced compared to same period last year.
  13. 80% of the families have stopped visiting hospitals for ailments.
  14. 74% of patients with chronic illnesses (diabetics, people with high blood pressure, cancer, etc.) are getting regular medication from the government.


  1. Good quality and enough quantity food grains must be supplied free of cost through the government Public Distribution System (PDS).
  2. Financial support of Rs.5000 per month must be given to PDS card holders.
  3. The market price of essential goods must be controlled.
  4. Mobility of farming and farming products must be allowed (accepted by the government)
  5. MGNREGA Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (100 days’ work) must be resumed (accepted by the government)
  6. The needs of unregistered unorganized workers must be met
  7. The needs of migrant workers must be met
  8. All microfinance institutions must be banned, with immediate effect.
  9. All agricultural products must be purchased by the government.
  10. TASMAC (liquor shops) must be permanently closed.
  11. Illicit liquor must be abolished
  12. The government must ban beedi and cigarette sales.
  13. Pension must be distributed by the post office at the pensioners’ doorstep, not in banks.
  14. EMI and SHG loans must be delayed and interest to be canceled.
  15. EB payment must be written off for at least two months.
  16. Rs. 500 provision packs must be given free for at least two months.
  17. Medicines must be distributed through VHN (Village Health Nurse) and PHC (Primary Health Centers)
  18. The needs of pregnant and lactating mothers must be met through VHNs
  19. School fees / Education loans must be cancelled for this year.
  20. Laborers working in private companies must be paid for the lockdown period.