Annotated Bibliography on
Gender, Torture and Transitional Justice
Prepared by Mangalam Sridhar
- Gender and Torture Conference Report. REDRESS and Amnesty International. October 2011. http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/GenderandTortureConferenceReport-191011.pdf Accessed on 5/5/2016 at 1420 IST.
The report is a study from a two-day conference that brought in people from different dimensions like, representatives from Non – Governmental Organisations and academics. The report focuses on the definition of torture as per the international law, the reasons why torture is considered to be one of the most serious crimes and the effects of the different forms of torture. It looks into gender-based violence used as a form of torture by state actors in counter-terrorism policies and how it is the responsibility of the state when torture is committed by the non-state actors. It also looks at the international legal framework implementing the prohibition of torture. They discussed on the role that legal framework on torture has and how it can help in achieving justice for women and those from marginalized groups. It also considered successes in advocacy and litigation under the legal framework on torture: it recognised the forms of harms by state and non-state actors like, female genital mutilation, rape, etc. And the effects this recognition has had. It also focuses on the responsibility for harms by non-state actors.
- Torture Research Bibliography- Chris Einolf, Assistant Professor, DePaul University’s School of Public Service
https://tortureresearch.wordpress.com/Accessed on 6/5/2016 at 1930 IST
This research bibliography is a web page that provides academic scholars, researchers and other commoners an understanding of what torture is and how it can be prevented. It provides various definitions of torture including the legal definitions, scholarly definitions, etc. It also provides a clear study on the history of torture in the different eras. They also focus on the micro level causes that facilitate torture like military training, etc. and the macro level causes. The focus on gender is given in the study about Rape and sexual assault. And they have finally concluded with the preventive measures.
- Gender and Torture: Does it matter? Published by Centre for Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Johannesburg, South Africa
http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24-a6a8c7060233&lng=en&id=179350 – Link for the PDF of the report. Accessed on 7/5/2016 at 1435 IST
This report looks at the different ways in which Gender influences the impact of torture. It aimed at developing the African Torture Rehabilitation Model- a contextually – informed, evidence – based psychosocial model for the rehabilitation of victims of torture. They looked at the likelihood of Torture Victimization, Impact of sexual violence/ torture. The study had three methodologies. It also looked at the impacts separately for men and women. And then a consensus was built and interventions were proposed. The interventions were given based on the real-life experiences of individuals.
- Gender differences in Victims of War Torture: Types of torture and psychological consequences
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20499736 Accessed on 7/5/2016 at 1545 IST
The study focused on torture for political reasons on men and women and the various psychological impacts faces by them. They also looked at the types of torture that men and women faced and found that there were 28 types of tortures frequently faced by men and 5 among women. Torture types also revealed three factors- Common torture, sadistic torture and sexual torture. They concluded with a study on torture faced by women and men in wars.
5. Accountability for Past Abuse- Juan E. Mendez, September 1996.
http://kellogg.nd.edu/publications/workingpapers/WPS/233.pdf Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 0015 IST
It looks into the massive human rights violations and abuse in the past and attempts to restore truth and justice to the legacy of abuse in the recent past. It also looks at various dimensions of the problem- legal, political and ethical dimensions. It focuses on ways to look into these problems and how to tackle them. It also mentions the different measures taken by various countries to curb these problems, and looks at the international law. It looks for ways to avoid false dilemmas and looks for moral justifications for prosecutions for all kinds of violations committed or faced. Lastly, it looks at universal principles and the differences between countries while trying to find solutions for the violations and crimes.
- Gender and Transitional Justice in Africa: Progress and Prospects- Helen Scanlon and Kelli Muddell
http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajcr/article/viewFile/52170/40796 Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 1200 IST
#Africa #Gender #TransitionalJustice
This study looks at the needs to address the gender-based violations and the needs to address the kinds of violations that women face. It also looks at negative impacts that follow when gender – based violations are neglected. It focuses on the legal mechanisms and the international law- its importance and contributions. Then, it looks at providing amends or reparations, security sector reform (SSR), mechanisms, emerging concerns and the challenges for Gender and Transitional Justice.
- Convention Against Torture: A viable alternative legal remedy for domestic violence victims- Barbara Cochrane Alexander
http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1277&context=auilr Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 1415 IST
The study first looks at torture – conventions and prohibitions, both international and domestic. Then, focuses on domestic violence. It compares Asylum with convention against torture(CAT) relief where, it focuses on the benefits the asylum provides for domestic violence victims, looks at the requirements for the survivor of domestic violence to receive CAT reliefs as an alternative remedy. There is a detailed study on domestic violence, it looks into case studies and how domestic violence is a form of torture.
- Gender Inequality and its effects in female torture survivors- Scientific Research
http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH20120400009_94389582.pdf Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 1420 IST
It gives an introduction about gender inequality and torture from a feminist perspective, looks at gender discrimination as a form of trauma that has adverse effects on the individual- among the types of traumas, this focuses on type III trauma which is one of the most serious kinds. It also looks at the different dynamics and dimensions of gender discrimination. And there is study conducted on gender discrimination for females and males in different areas.
- Transitional Justice in Sri Lanka and ways forward- Centre for policy alternatives- July 2005.
http://www.cpalanka.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Transitional-Justice-in-Sri-Lanka-and-Ways-Forward.pdf Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 1600 IST\
The report focuses on 4 main aspects or areas for study. They are: Recruitment and conscription of Child Soldiers, Disappearances, Sexual Violence and Displacement. Under the Recruitment and conscription of Child Soldiers, they look at the definition of a child soldier, use of child soldiers, look into a case study and look at implementing methods to stop this kind of a violation with the involvement of the truth and reconciliation commission. Under Disappearances, they look at the definition of enforced disappearance, the issue in Sri Lanka and look into a case study where they focus on various aspects like, transition of leadership, involvement of the commission of inquiry,etc. and suggest necessary methods to avoid these problems. Under Sexual Violence, they only do a brief study on Sexual Violence in Sri Lanka and look into a case study. Under Internal Displacement, there is a study on the issues in Sri Lanka, how it has affected individuals and then there is a case study which involves the National Recovery Strategy. Then, the importance of the state’s involvement and IDPs involvement is looked into.
- Transitional Justice in Sexual and Gender-based Violence- Makau Mutua
http://www.pambazuka.org/gen//der-minorities/transitional-justice-sexual-and-gender-based-violence Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 1930 IST
It looks at the need and the importance of transitional justice to solve gender-based problems. Looks at the problems women face due to patriarchy and male centeredness. Focuses on early stage of life, learning and socialisation that plays an important role. Looks at Sexual and gender based violence- women and girls being the main targets. And then, legal and political responses are looked into.
- Gender Justice-ICTJ
https://www.ictj.org/our-work/transitional-justice-issues/gender-justice Accessed on 8/5/2016 at 2300
Looks at the prevalence of gender- based violence as a major concern and looks at the role of the transitional justice- its mechanisms. They also mention the role of the ICTJ like, how they support local women’s groups, bring activists together, etc.
- The Gender dimension of Transitional Justice Mechanisms: Laura.C.Turano
http://nyujilp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/43.4-Turano.pdf Accessed on 9/5/2016 at 0700 IST
Looks at the war crimes, violence committed against women during armed conflicts, etc. It focuses on the historical treatment of crimes committed against women during armed conflict where we can see that, rape is the least condemned war crime. And it also looks at characterizing the crimes committed against women and there is a detailed study, investigation and looking at ways to respect and respond properly to the victims.
- Torture, Cruel, Inhuman and degrading treatment of Women: Psychological Consequences- Libby Tata Arcel
http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/psyke/article/viewFile/8530/7087 Accessed on 11/05/2016 at 1000 IST
This report starts with an introduction on Torture and gender-specific forms of torture. They look at the important reason for focusing general societal violence against women and it looks at the branch of human rights law. They focus on the World Conference on Human Rights. Then, they look at the definition of gender-based violence and how this definition is connected to the definition of torture. They focus on sexual torture and Cruel, Inhuman, Degrading, Treatment and Punishment (CIDTP) of women by State Agents- This looks at the definitions and forms of Sexual Assault. It also focuses on specific contexts of Sexual Torture and CIDTP like, Armed Conflict, detention for various reasons, etc. Then, they focus on impunity for sexual torturers, recognition of rape as a sexual torture and finally looks at the experience of sexual torture.
- Report on Gender Perspectives on Torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment: Juan.E.Mendez
http://antitorture.org/gender-perspectives-2/ Accessed on 15/05/2016 at 1530 IST
Firstly, it talks about the gender perspectives on torture and other cruel or inhuman treatment. The rapporteur stresses on the applicability of the prohibition of torture and other inhuman treatment in international law to the experiences of women, men, transgenders, lesbian, etc. It focuses on the legal framework for the need to apply the convention against torture and other inhuman treatment. They also look at how violence, discrimination, etc. is not just faced by women but also by men, looks at the purpose of the definition of torture and how it is fulfilled. Then, it separately focuses on the torture and other kinds of ill-treatment faced by women, transgenders, lesbian, etc. in detention, health care settings, looks at the different kinds of abuse or violence like Rape, Domestic violence, etc. and looks at the various measures like, health care and sanitation, security, etc. It also focuses on the different harmful practices like female genital mutilation, honour- based violence, etc. and the access for women, transgenders, etc to justice.